Diabetes Type 1

Type 1 diabetes is often called Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or a Dependent Diabetes Mellitus on Insulin. Thus type 1 diabetes associated with pancreatic inability to make insulin. So this type of diabetes associated with damage or dysfunction of the pancreas to produce insulin.
People with type 1 diabetes mostly occurs in people under the age of 30 years. That is why the disease is often called juvenile diabetes because the sufferer is more common in children and adolescents. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can not produce enough insulin because the body's immune system disorder that destroys cells that produce insulin, or because of a virus infection so that the hormone insulin in the body decreases and the resulting pile of sugar in the bloodstream.

Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can not produce enough insulin. Due to lack of insulin causes the glucose stays in the bloodstream and can not be used as energy. Some causes of the pancreas can not produce enough insulin in people with type 1 diabetes, among other reasons:
  • Heredity or genetic factors. If one or both parents suffer from diabetes, then the child will be at risk of developing diabetes.
  • Autoimmunity is the body's allergic to one type of cell or tissue itself-in this case, which is in the pancreas. The body loses the ability to form insulin because the immune system destroys cells that produce insulin.
  • Viral or chemical that causes damage to the island of cells (cell groups) in the pancreas where insulin is made. More and more islands of damaged cells, the greater the likelihood of someone suffering from diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment
Because the pancreas produces insulin difficulty, then insulin must be added every day. Generally by way of injection of insulin. Is it possible with oral care? You can not, because insulin can be destroyed in the stomach when inserted through the mouth.
Another way is to improve the function of the pancreas. If the pancreas can again function normally, the pancreas can meet the needs of insulin the body needs.


Diabetes Tipe 1
Penyakit diabetes tipe 1 sering disebut Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus atau Diabetes Mellitus yang Bergantung pada Insulin. Jadi diabetes tipe 1 berkaitan dengan ketidaksanggupan pankreas untuk membuat insulin. Jadi diabetes tipe ini berkaitan dengan kerusakan atau gangguan fungsi pankreas menghasilkan insulin.
Penderita penyakit diabetes tipe 1 sebagian besar terjadi pada orang di bawah umur 30 tahun. Itu sebabnya penyakit ini sering dijuluki diabetes anak-anak karena penderitanya lebih banyak terjadi pada anak-anak dan remaja. Pada diabetes tipe 1, pankreas tidak dapat menghasilkan cukup insulin akibat kelainan sistem imun tubuh yang menghancurkan sel yang menghasilkan insulin atau karena infeksi virus sehingga hormon insulin dalam tubuh berkurang dan mengakibatkan timbunan gula pada aliran darah.

Penyebab Diabetes Tipe 1
Pada diabetes tipe 1, pankreas tidak dapat menghasilkan cukup insulin. Karena kekurangan insulin menyebabkan glukosa tetap ada di dalam aliran darah dan tidak dapat digunakan sebagai energi. Beberapa penyebab pankreas tidak dapat menghasilkan cukup insulin pada penderita diabetes tipe 1, antara lain karena:
* Faktor keturunan atau genetika. Jika salah satu atau kedua orang tua menderita diabetes, maka anak akan berisiko terkena diabetes.
* Autoimunitas yaitu tubuh alergi terhadap salah satu jaringan atau jenis selnya sendiri—dalam hal ini, yang ada dalam pankreas. Tubuh kehilangan kemampuan untuk membentuk insulin karena sistem kekebalan tubuh menghancurkan sel-sel yang memproduksi insulin.
* Virus atau zat kimia yang menyebabkan kerusakan pada pulau sel (kelompok-kelompok sel) dalam pankreas tempat insulin dibuat. Semakin banyak pulau sel yang rusak, semakin besar kemungkinan seseorang menderita diabetes.

Perawatan Diabetes Tipe 1
Karena pankreas kesulitan menghasilkan insulin, maka insulin harus ditambahkan setiap hari. Umumnya dengan cara suntikan insulin. Apakah bisa dengan perawatan secara oral? Tidak bisa, karena insulin dapat hancur dalam lambung bila dimasukkan lewat mulut.
Cara lain adalah dengan memperbaiki fungsi kerja pankreas. Jika pankreas bisa kembali berfungsi dengan normal, maka pankreas bisa memenuhi kebutuhan insulin yang dibutuhkan tubuh.

Lipid Profile - Complete Cholesterol Breakdown

Lipid Profile provides a detailed breakdown of the different lipoproteins in your blood. These results have to be compared against each other to provide a more accurate picture of what is going on, and to assess each individual's risk.

Cholesterol, total; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (calculation); triglycerides; and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (calculation).

Recommendation: Periodic screening for high blood cholesterol is recommended for all men and women. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel II, convened by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, recommends routine measurement of nonfasting total cholesterol and HDL in all adults age 20 or older. Screening young persons can provide other information to help stimulate lifestyle changes. Elevated cholesterol is an important risk factor for CHD in men and women in the U.S. and there is now good evidence that lowering cholesterol can reduce the risk of CHD. Measures that lower cholesterol and provide other health benefits (e.g. regular physical activity, reducing dietary fat, and maintaining a healthy weight) should be encouraged in all persons. Cholesterol screening can identify high-risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from individualized counseling.

Glucose - Blood Sugar (Diabetes)

Glucose is a type of sugar found in fruits and many other foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body. Most of the carbohydrates that people eat are turned into glucose, which can be used for energy or stored in the liver and kidneys as glycogen.

A hormone called insulin helps the body use and control the amount of glucose in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released into the blood when the amount of glucose in the blood rises. People who do not produce enough insulin develop diabetes. People can also develop diabetes if they do not respond normally to the insulin their bodies produce. This occurs most commonly when a person is overweight.

Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after a person eats a meal. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin so that blood glucose levels do not get too high. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

Hemoglobin A1c (Diabetes) - Cholesterol Test Descriptions

Hemoglobin A1c is used to evaluate persons who have up and down fluctuations in blood sugar (glucose) levels. It is theorized that a single glucose measurement may not accurately describe a person's true blood sugar levels. Glucose measurements alone may only provide a snapshot of blood sugar levels whereas Hemoglobin A1c can provide a more accurate longer-term assessment.

What is Diabetes?
Diabetes means that your blood sugar is too high. Your blood always has some sugar in it because the body needs sugar for energy to keep you going. But too much sugar in the blood is not good for your health.

How do you get high blood sugar?
Your body changes most of the food you eat into sugar. Your blood carries the sugar to your body cells. The sugar needs insulin to get into the body cells. Insulin is a chemical (a hormone) made in a part of the body called the pancreas. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood. Insulin helps the sugar from food get into body cells. If your body doesn't make enough insulin or the insulin doesn't work right, the sugar cannot get into the cells. Its stays in the blood. This makes your blood sugar level high, causing you to have diabetes.

What are the signs of diabetes?
The signs of diabetes are:
* being very thirsty
* urinating often
* feeling very hungry or tired
* losing weight without trying
* having sores that are slow to heal, or dry itchy skin
* losing feeling in the feet or having tingling in the feet
* having blurry eyesight
You may have had one or more of these signs before you found out you had diabetes.

What kind of diabetes do you have?
People can get diabetes at any age. Most people get diabetes when they are over 40 or 50 years old. They usually have the kind of diabetes called noninsulin-dependent diabetes. People with noninsulin-dependent diabetes follow a special diet and may take diabetes pills. However, sometimes they need insulin shots. Some people get diabetes as children or teenagers. They usually have the kind of diabetes known as insulin-dependent diabetes. This means they need daily insulin shots.

Why a blood glucose screening?
A glucose test shows what your sugar level is right now, and is a basic indicator to diabetes. Too often, people don't have a clue that they have early type 2 diabetes. Yet damage to their eyes, kidneys, heart, and blood vessels may already be under way. It doesn't have to be like that. We have better methods to detect diabetes. We understand more about preventing and reducing its complications. Diabetes - a "silent killer" --continues to ravage the health of millions of Americans. Often, diabetes runs in families. Nonetheless, a recent survey of diabetics found that most of them didn't know about the family connection.

What is a good blood sugar level?
Everyone has some sugar in their blood. The normal amount of sugar in the blood ranges from about 70 to 120 -- in people who don't have diabetes. Blood sugar goes up after eating, but returns to the normal range in 1 to 2 hours. A good blood sugar range for most people with diabetes is from about 70 to 150. This is before a meal -- like before breakfast or 4 to 5 hours after your last meal.
  • People can get diabetes at any age. Most people get diabetes when they are over 40 or 50 years old.
  • The normal amount of sugar in blood levels is about 70-120 in people who don't have diabetes
  • Every person is different; for example blood sugar of 80 may be too low for some people.
  • American Diabetes Association recommends both Glucose and A1c testing.
  • Often, diabetes runs in families. Nonetheless, a recent survey of diabetics found that most of them didn't know about the family connection.
  • Too often, people don't know that they have early type 2 diabetes. Yet damage to their eyes, kidneys, heart, and blood vessels may already be under way.

Remember: Everyone is different. A good blood sugar range for someone else may not be the best for you. For example; a blood sugar of 80 may be too low for some people. Ask your doctor what the best range of blood sugar is for you.

AST and ALT - Cholesterol Test Descriptions

ALT (Liver Function Cell Damage)
ALT is measured to determine whether the liver is damaged or diseased. Low levels of ALT are normally found in the blood. However, when the liver is damaged or diseased, it releases ALT into the bloodstream, causing levels of the enzyme to rise. Although ALT is found in organs other than the liver, most increases in ALT levels are due to liver damage. The ALT test often is done along with other tests that can determine whether the liver is damaged, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Both ALT and AST levels are reliable indicators of liver damage.

AST (Liver Function Tissue Damage)
When an organ (such as the heart or liver) or body tissue is diseased or damaged, additional AST is released into the bloodstream. The amount of AST in the blood is directly related to the extent of the tissue damage. After severe damage, AST levels rise in 6 to 10 hours and remain high for about 4 days. The AST test may be done at the same time as a test for alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. The ratio of AST to ALT (AST:ALT) sometimes can help determine whether the liver or another organ has been damaged. AST also can help determine the cause of the liver damage. Both ALT and AST levels are reliable indicators of liver damage.

What is ALT?
ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) is an enzyme that appears in liver cells, with lesser amounts in the kidneys, heart, and skeletal muscles, and is a relatively specific indicator of acute liver cell damage. When such damage occurs, ALT is released from the liver cells into the bloodstream, often before jaundice appears.

What is AST?
AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) is found in many body tissues including the heart, muscle, kidney, brain, and lung. It is also present in the liver. When body tissue or an organ such as the heart or liver is damaged, additional AST is released into the bloodstream. The amount of AST in the blood is directly related to the extent of the tissue damage.

What is the purpose of the blood serum test?
ALT and AST are elevated even before the clinical signs and symptoms of disease, such as cardiovascular disease, liver disease and muscle disease. The purpose of the blood serum test is to help detect and evaluate treatment of acute hepatic disease, especially hepatitis, and cirrhosis without jaundice. An inflamed liver is called hepatitis. Trauma can cause this, along with drugs (even aspirin), viruses, bacteria, bile, and toxins. Many medications produce hepatic injury by competitively interfering with cellular metabolism.
To help distinguish between myocardial (heart) and jaundice (liver tissue).
Also to assess hepatotoxicity of some drugs.

H.Pylori - Cholesterol Test Descriptions

H.Pylori (Stomach Ulcer and / or Cancer)
Infection with Helicobacter pylori, a type of bacteria, is a major cause of stomach ulcers and ulcers of the duodenum. It may also increase the risk of developing stomach cancer. In some people, H. pylori bacteria grow in the lining of the stomach and duodenum and may cause inflammation. This inflammation can increase a person's risk of developing an ulcer. However, not all people infected with H. pylori develop ulcers. H. pylori can often be transmitted to humans from pets.

What is H.Pylori?
Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) is a spiral shaped bacterium, found in the gastric mucus layer or adherent to the epithelial lining of the stomach. H. Pylori causes more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and more than 80% of gastric ulcers. Before 1982, when this bacterium was discovered, spicy food, acid, stress, and lifestyle were considered the major causes of ulcers. The majority of patients were given long-term maintenance doses of acid-reducing medications, without a chance for permanent cure. Since we now know that most ulcers are caused by H. Pylori, appropriate antibiotic regimens can successfully eradicate the infection in most patients, with complete resolution of mucosal inflammation and a minimal chance for recurrence of ulcers.
How common is H. Pylori infection?
Approximately two-thirds of the world's population is infected with H. Pylori. In the United States, H. Pylori is more prevalent among older adults, African Americans, Hispanics, and lower socioeconomic groups.

What illnesses does H. Pylori cause?
Most persons who are infected with H. Pylori never suffer any symptoms related to the infection; however, H. Pylori causes chronic active, chronic persistent, and atrophic gastritis in adults and children. Infection with H. Pylori also causes duodenal and gastric ulcers. Infected persons have a 2 to 6 fold increased risk of developing gastric cancer and mucosal-associated-lymphoid-type (MALT) lymphoma compared with their uninfected counterparts.

What are the symptoms of ulcers?
Approximately 25 million Americans suffer from peptic ulcer disease. Each year there are 500,000 to 850,000 new cases of peptic ulcer disease and more than one million ulcer-related hospitalizations. The most common ulcer symptom is gnawing or burning pain in the epigastrium. This pain typically occurs when the stomach is empty, between meals and in the early morning hours, but can also occur at other times. It may last from minutes to hours and may be relieved by eating or taking antacids. Less common ulcer symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. Bleeding can also occur; prolonged bleeding may cause anemia leading to weakness and fatigue. If bleeding is heavy, hematemesis, hematochezia, or melena may occur.

Who should be tested and treated for H. Pylori?
Person with active gastric or duodenal ulcers or documented history of ulcers should be tested for H. Pylori, and if found to be infected, they should be treated.

How is H. Pylori infection diagnosed?
Several methods may be used to diagnose H. Pylori infection:
Serological (blood) tests that measure specific H. Pylori lgG antibodies can determine if a person has been infected.
The biopsy urease tests is a colorimetric test based on the ability of H. Pylori to produce urease; it provides rapid testing at the time of biopsy.
Histological identification of organisms is considered the gold standard of diagnostic tests.
Culture of biopsy specimens for H. Pylori requires an experienced laboratory and is necessary when antimicrobial susceptibility testing is desired.

What are the treatment regimens used for H. Pylori eradication?
Most ulcers are caused by an H. Pylori infection and can be cured in about 2 weeks with antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance and patient noncompliance are the two major reasons for treatment failure.

H. Pylori Facts
* Gastric cancer is the second most common
* Two thirds of the world's population is infected
* Infected persons have a 2 to 6 fold increased risk
* Most ulcers are caused by H. Pylori infection

TSH (Thyroid) - Cholesterol Test Descriptions

TSH (Thyroid)
A test for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is often used to detect a problem affecting the thyroid gland. TSH is produced when the hypothalamus releases a substance called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone then triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH.
TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce two hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 help control your body's metabolism.

What is TSH?
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) is a chemical substance produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize and release its own hormones into the bloodstream. When not enough thyroid hormone is produced, a condition called hypothyroidism will result, often referred to as an underactive thyroid. When too much thyroid hormone is produced, a condition called hyperthyroidism will result, often referred to as an overactive thyroid.

Because there are so many different health problems associated with either an underactive or overactive thyroid gland, it is essential that basic thyroid function be tested regularly. The easiest way to do this is by testing for TSH.

What are some of the symptoms associated with an underactive or overactive thyroid?
An underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism, is the most common form of thyroid disease and can produce a wide range of health problems. These include:
  • weight gain or an inability to lose weight
  • depression
  • fatigue
  • sensitivity to cold
  • dry skin
  • hair dryness or hair loss
  • forgetfulness
  • muscle cramps
  • excess water retention, constipation
  • heavy menstrual periods
  • elevated blood cholesterol levels
  • hoarse voice
An overactive thyroid, or hyperthyroidism, is the less common form of thyroid disease, but can also produce a wide range of health problems. These include:
  • weight gain or an inability to lose weight
  • insomnia
  • fatigue
  • sensitivity to heat
  • tremor muscle weakness
  • nervousness
  • heart palpitations
  • frequent bowel movements
  • light menstrual periods
  • elevated blood cholesterol levels
  • hoarse voice

Are there risk factors I should be aware of?
Absolutely. While anyone can develop thyroid disease, there are certain things that make it more likely you will suffer from the disorder. These are called risk factors and are broken down into two categories: Personal History risk factors and Family History risk factors.
Personal History risk factors deal with your own past or current medical conditions and/or any drugs you might be taking. You are at greater risk if you have (or have had) any of the following
* thyroid dysfunction
* goiter
* surgery or radiotherapy affecting the thyroid gland
* diabetes mellitus
* vitiligo (non-pigmented skin patches)
* prematurely gray hair

Family History risk factors refer to having an immediate family member who suffers from any of the following conditions:
* thyroid disease
* pernicious anemia
* diabetes mellitus
* primary adrenal insufficiency

Thyroid (TSH) Facts
* Your thyroid gland produces hormones that influence essentially every organ, every cell and every tissue in your entire body!
* Elevated blood cholesterol levels, hair loss, weight gain or an inability to lose weight are a few of the symptoms associated with an underactive thyroid.
* After diet, the most common secondary cause of high cholesterol is hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
* An estimated 13 million Americans have thyroid disorders, and more than half of them remain undiagnosed.
* Women are 5 to 8 times more likely than men to suffer from an overactive or underactive thyroid.
* The elderly are more likely to suffer from hypothyroidism. By age 60, as many as 17 percent of women have an underactive thyroid.
* Five to 8 percent of women develop thyroid disorders after giving birth.
* More than half of American women over 40 experience 3 or more common symptoms of thyroid disorder.

Blood Typing - Cholesterol Test Descriptions

Do you know your blood type? The ABO test classifies people's blood into one of four types: A, B, AB, or O. If your red blood cells have:

The A antigen, you have type A blood. The liquid portion of your blood (plasma) contains antibodies against type B blood. The B antigen, you have type B blood. Your plasma contains antibodies against type A blood. Neither the A nor B antigen, you have type O blood. Your plasma contains antibodies against both type A and type B blood. Both the A and B antigens, you have type AB blood. Your plasma does not contain antibodies against either type A or type B blood. Blood received in a transfusion must contain antigens that are the same as the antigens on a person's own red blood cells (compatible blood). If you receive a transfusion that contains antigens different from your own (incompatible blood), the antibodies in your plasma will recognize the transfused (donor) blood as foreign and will attack and destroy the donor red blood cells. This is called a transfusion reaction, and it occurs immediately when incompatible blood is transfused. A transfusion reaction can cause serious illness and even death.

Type O-negative blood does not have any antigens. It is called the "universal donor" type because it is compatible with any blood type. Type AB-positive blood is called the "universal recipient" type because a person who has it can receive blood of any type. Although “universal donor” and “universal recipient” types are occasionally used to classify blood in an emergency, blood typing tests are almost always done to prevent transfusion reactions.

This test also checks for the Rh factor type (positive or negative).

Rh blood typing determines the presence (+) or absence (–) of the Rh antigen (also called the Rh factor). If your red blood cells:

Contain the Rh antigen, your blood is Rh-positive. Do not contain the Rh antigen, your blood is Rh-negative. Contain the A and Rh antigens, your blood type is A-positive (A+). If your blood contains the B antigen but not the Rh antigen, your blood type is B-negative (B–). Rh blood typing is especially important for women who want to have children. A potential problem arises when a woman who has Rh-negative blood becomes pregnant with a fetus that has Rh-positive blood. This is called Rh incompatibility. If the blood of an Rh-positive fetus mixes with the blood of an Rh-negative woman during pregnancy or delivery, the mother's immune system produces antibodies. This antibody response is called Rh sensitization and, depending on when it occurs, can destroy the fetus's red blood cells.

Cholesterol Risk Table

Borderline High
Total Cholesterol
Less than 200 mg/dL200-239 mg/dL>240 mg/dL
Greater than 45 mg/dL20 - 45 mg/dL<20 mg/dL
Less than 130 mg/dL130-159 mg/dL>160 mg/dL
Less than 150 mg/dL150-400 mg/dL>400 mg/dL

* Less than 40 mg/dL creates additional risk
**Less than 100 mg/dL optimally if you have had a previous heart attack or stroke

Since 1984, 3 major studies have shown thatcholesterol plays a significant role in Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) andthat lowering cholesterol to acceptable levels significantly reducesthe risk of developing CHD.The same study showed that small butsignificant increases in HDL are associated with additional reduction inCHD risk.Increasingly, the measurement of HDL is being used as anindicator of risk and may be a strong predictor of risk, especially inwomen and older individuals.Elevated triglycerides may also be a riskfactor for CHD.When performed as part of a Lipid Profile, Totalcholesterol, HDL and Triglycerides are used in the calculation of anestimated LDL value.The National Institute of Health has recommendedaggressive efforts to identify and treat those at risk for CHD.

High blood cholesterol is a condition thatgreatly increases your chances of developing CHD, the main form of heartdisease.That is because extra cholesterol in the blood collects inthe inner walls of the arteries, allowing less blood to get to theheart.

The primary evidence to support cholesterolscreening is the ability of cholesterol-lowering interventions toreduce the risk of CHD in patients with high cholesterol.Thesebenefits are now well established for persons with preexistingarteriosclerotic vascular disease.In individual trials and overviewsof studies enrolling persons with angina or prior to myocardialinfarction, cholesterol-lowering treatments slowed the progression ofatherosclerosis, reduced the incidence of CHD, and reduced overallmortality.

Recommendation: Periodic screening for high blood cholesterol is recommended for allmen and women.The National Cholesterol Education Program AdultTreatment Panel II, convened by the National Heart, Lung and BloodInstitute, recommends routine measurement of nonfasting totalcholesterol and HDL in all adults age 20 or older.Screening youngpersons can provide other information to help stimulate lifestylechanges.Elevated cholesterol is an important risk factor for CHD inmen and women in the U.S. and there is now good evidence that loweringcholesterol can reduce the risk of CHD.Measures that lower cholesteroland provide other health benefits (e.g. regular physical activity,reducing dietary fat, and maintaining a healthy weight) should beencouraged in all persons.Cholesterol screening can identify high-riskindividuals who are most likely to benefit from individualizedcounseling.

What is Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a naturally occurring substance that is both made by your body and derived from the food you eat. Total cholesterol is a measure of all cholesterol in your blood including HDL "good" cholesterol, LDL "bad" cholesterol and triglycerides.

HDL: HDL is considered your "good" cholesterol because it can pick up "bad" cholesterol and transport it to your liver, where your body can get rid of it. High levels of HDL can protect your arteries from cholesterol build-up (formed by LDL) and reduce your risk of heart disease. Experts agree that a total cholesterol level under 200 mg/dl is considered desirable. Experts agree that a low total cholesterol does not necessarily mean low risk and that low HDL actually increases your risk of CHD.
Your risk of heart disease increases as the level of HDL decreases. In fact, the NCEP, adult treatment guidelines now recommend testing for HDL as well as total cholesterol for accurate assessment of cardiac risk. Total cholesterol testing alone can be misleading. Approximately 40% of the U.S. population who are only tested for total cholesterol could misinterpret their results. 17% tested don't realize they could be at risk due to low HDL (<40 mg/dl) and 23% tested may over estimate their risk because their HDL level is high (>60 mg/dl), indicating added protection from CHD.

LDL: Low density lipoproteins - LDL is the major cholesterol carrier in the blood. When a person has too much LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood, it can slowly build up within the walls of the arteries feeding the heart and brain. Together with other substances it can form plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can clog the arteries. This condition is known as atherosclerosis. The formation of a clot in the region of this plaque can block the flow of blood to part of the heart muscle and cause a heart attack. If a clot blocks the flow of blood to part of the brain, the result is a stroke. A high level of LDL reflects an increased risk of heart disease. That is why LDL cholesterol is often called the "bad" cholesterol.
Medical professionals and journals have noted that elevated total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are major risk factors for CHD, and the reductions of LDL cholesterol in high risk individuals leads to lower incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events.

Triglycerides: Triglycerides are the chemical form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body. They are also present in blood plasma and, in association with cholesterol, form the plasma lipids. Triglycerides in plasma are derived from fats eaten in foods or made in the body from other energy sources like carbohydrates. Carbohydrates ingested in a meal and not used immediately by tissues are converted to triglycerides and transported to fat cells to be stored. Hormones regulate the release of triglycerides from fat tissue so they meet the body's needs for energy between meals. Most of the body's stored fat is in the form of triglycerides. Another lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein- VLDL has the job of carrying triglycerides in the blood. It is not clear whether high levels of triglycerides alone increase an individual's risk of heart disease. However, they may be an important clue that someone is at risk of heart disease for other reasons. Many people who have elevated triglycerides also have high LDL or low HDL.
People with diabetes or kidney disease, two conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, are also prone to high triglycerides. Triglyceride levels are strongly influenced by diet. While cholesterol levels remain pretty constant over a month or so, and aren't terribly affected by meals, triglycerides respond quickly to a meal, particularly one with a lot of fat, sugar, or alcohol.


What is cholesterol

Cholesterol, one of the ingredients into the main stem to the problem of heart disease. If abortion is high in blood, he has the potential inherent in the walls of blood Salur. This will make blood Salur shrink and eventually be blocked. This process is known as atherosclerosis. Had force on the arteries to the heart, his impression is heart disease. If applicable in the brain, his impression is stroke. Apart from the heart, cholesterol is also associated with hearing problems, vision and intelligence also Minda someone. All of this is related to atherosclerosis. Disorders that cause the supply of nutrients and oxygen which is insufficient for these organs.
Cholesterol, is soft and oily, odorless. Present on every portion of the body, especially in the brain (with form 11% of dry weight), nervous system, skin, liver, intestine, spleen and sex hormones. So, people need in the biological processes. Just do not be in the amount is too much. Become commonplace, every element in the food necessary to have Had its acquisition. Inside the human body itself, produced by the liver cholesterol between 800 to 1000 mg a day. Intake of foods said to be very little effect on cholesterol concentrations increased weight. However, follow what is suggested by experts kesihatan America, making necessary daily to 300 mg dihadkan sake only.
Measurement of cholesterol concentrations in the blood is made in the mm / dl. A person aged over 20 years, looks at cholesterol between 180 to 200 mm / dl is considered safe. Less than 150 mm / dl is said to have links with kanser liver, lung, pancreas, moodiness, and bleeding of the brain. But the impression of actually still be fighting. Paras at between 200 to 230 mm / dl also considered border. While exceeding 240 mm / dl is considered high. Other factors will further enhance the dangers of cholesterol. Someone who have high blood pressure are at this stage has six times more merbahaya threat of heart disease, and 20 times the double danger of the threat of heart disease by a smoker!!
Cholesterol, triacyglicerol, and other fats in the cecair body moves with the help of some siri lipoproteins. A kind of material that berteraskan fat fat hydrophobic and surrounded by polar and then on the outside by the apoprotein. Among the species most captured the attention of the delivery of cholesterol is HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL (low density lipoprotein). Both are produced by the liver where cholesterol will join him. LDL to form 60 to 75 peratus of total cholesterol, while HDL, forming 25 peratus. Role of LDL carries cholesterol into the arterial blood. High concentration causes atherosclerosis, in which LDL cholesterol is separate from and attached to so harden the walls of arteries. Instead of HDL will carry cholesterol from the blood to be used by the liver. HDL is considered "good cholesterol", while LDL is the opposite.
By the way, the assessment stage merbahayanya cholesterol fractions depend also on the second-these two types of cholesterol. Under paras 130 mm / dl for LDL is considered safe, 130 to 159 mm / dl is the finish line. If more than 160, a person is at risk of atherosclerosis. When the presence of HDL should exceed 45 mm / dl. With that, the amount of cholesterol as a whole was not carrying a big erties. What is necessary is taken in assessing the stage kesihatan think someone is based on the fractional amount of total per amount of HDL cholesterol. Where the ratio cholesterol / HDL is necessary less than 4.5. Means to more high-HDL, is again good. Though the number of LDL is high, pieces can not be less than the value given to a person are at the stage of the survivors.

The state of stimulating Improved Blood Cholesterol
* Age 25 years who melepasi
* Someone who is there among family experts have records relating to heart disease
* Underactive thyroid gland
* Too many sweet foods taken in one-one time
* Many took the edge of fatty foods
* Addicted to wine
* Take a high-cholesterol diet
* Women in menopause or menstrual conditions
* Often experiencing emotional stress
* Lack aktiviti do physical exercises
* Reducing Cholesterol.

Among keadah known generically as memorable for subtracting the cholesterol in the blood are:
Elakkan yourself from taking too much fat tepu. Tepu fat is said to improve the appearance of cholesterol in the blood. Included also margerin from palm oil, peanut cheese. Kerana margerin or cheese is an oil that has been ditepukan (hydrogenated oil).
Most survivors are from the "mono" no tepu (monounsaturated). For example conola or olive oil. Lack impression of heart disease among people living in the Mediterranean region berpunca of using this type of oil. Two blades tepu fat tea is already sufficient to meet the minimum 30% of the fat in a day.
Intake of soluble fiber mainly from the type of water, especially oats. If done always allowed to lower the cholesterol content of between 3 to 9 peratus.

Senaman on sesetengah people are able to increase HDL in the blood. Instead of smoking lower the amount.
Need to subtract taking food from the rich sources of cholesterol. He is widely available on haiwan sources, not on the source plant. Among them such as red eggs, meat, organs haiwan, fish and chicken. While the shrimp, crabs, oysters are also rich in cholesterol, but also rich with fat "poly" not tepu (polyunsaturated). Intake of fish are rich with "polyunsaturated" who contribute so that 5 to 6 grams of oil by the eskimo raise HDL, reduce cholesterol, LDL and trigliserik although the fat content in the blood is high.

Dara Coconut Oil and Cholesterol
Cholesterol and triglycerides are formed from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). It is true lelemak tepu converted to acetyl-CoA involves a process of oxidation of beta (beta oxidation) but blamed taking lelemak tepu as stem increase in cholesterol is less precise.
According to experts, renowned biochemist Dr. Mary Enig, LDL and total cholesterol decreased kerana lelemak taking omega-6 (canola, sunflower, soya bean, corn, safflower) causes cholesterol is needed to stabilize the cell membrane. As a result, cholesterol in the blood berkurangan then lowered triglycerides and LDL paras.
Lelemak tepu of virgin coconut oil is also believed to strengthen the structure of membranes, the cholesterol is less used to stabilize. Recent studies in India as reported in 2004 found that virgin coconut oil making cause paras LDL and triglycerides decreased and HDL increased paras.


Apa itu kolesterol

Kolesterol, salah satu bahan yang menjadi punca utama kepada masalah peyakit jantung. Apabila kandungannya tinggi di dalam darah, ia berpotensi melekat pada dinding salur darah. Ini akan membuatkan salur darah mengecil dan akhirnya boleh tersumbat. Proses ini dikenali sebagai atherosclerosis. Sekiranya berlaku pada arteri yang ke jantung, kesannya adalah penyakit jantung. Apabila berlaku di otak, kesannya adalah strok. Selain dari jantung, kolesterol juga dikaitkan dengan masalah pendengaran, pengelihatan dan juga kecerdasan minda seseorang. Semua ini berkaitan dengan atherosclerosis. Gangguan yang menyebabkan penyediaan nutrient dan oksigen yang tidak mencukupi untuk organ-organ tersebut.
Kolesterol, bersifat lembut dan berminyak, tidak berbau. Hadir pada setiap bahagian badan, terutamanya di dalam otak (dengan membentuk 11% dari berat keringnya), sistem saraf, kulit, hati, usus, limpa dan hormon sex. Jadi, manusia memerlukannya di dalam proses biologi. Cuma tak boleh pada jumlah yang terlalu banyak. Menjadi lumrah, setiap unsur pada makanan perlu ada had pengambilannya. Di dalam badan manusia sendiri, kolesterol dihasilkan oleh hati di antara 800 hingga 1000 mg sehari. Pengambilan dari makanan dikatakan sangat kecil pengaruhnya terhadap peningkatan kepekatan kolesterol badan. Namun, mengikut apa yang disarankan oleh pakar kesihatan Amerika, pengambilan harian perlu dihadkan kepada 300 mg sahaja.
Pengukuran kepekatan kolesterol pada darah di buat dalam mm/dl. Seseorang yang berumur melebihi 20 tahun, paras kolesterol di antara 180 hingga 200 mm/dl adalah dianggap selamat. Kurang dari 150 mm/dl dikatakan mempunyai kaitan dengan kanser hati, paru, pankreas, kemurungan, dan pendarahan otak. Tetapi kesan sebenar masih menjadi pertikaian. Paras di antara 200 hingga 230 mm/dl pula dianggap sempadan. Sementara melebihi 240 mm/dl dianggap tinggi. Faktor-faktor lain akan lebih menambah kesan bahayanya kolesterol. Seseorang yang ada darah tinggi berada pada tahap ini mempunyai enam kali lebih merbahaya ancaman penyakit jantung, dan 20 kali ganda bahaya ancaman penyakit jantung oleh seorang perokok!!!!
Kolesterol, triacyglicerol, dan lemak-lemak yang lain bergerak di dalam cecair badan dengan bantuan beberapa siri lipoprotein. Sejenis bahan yang berteraskan lemak hidrofobik dan dikelilingi oleh lemak polar dan kemudian di luarnya oleh apoprotein. Di antara jenis yang paling diambil perhatian dalam penghantaran kolesterol adalah HDL (high density lipoprotein) dan LDL (low density lipoprotein). Kedua-duanya dihasilkan oleh hati di mana kolesterol akan bergabung dengannya. LDL membentuk 60 hingga 75 peratus dari jumlah kolesterol, sementara HDL membentuk 25 peratus. LDL berperanan membawa kolesterol ke dalam arteri darah. Kepekatannya yang tinggi menyebabkan atherosclerosis, di mana kolesterol terpisah dari LDL dan melekat seterusnya mengeraskan dinding arteri. Sebaliknya HDL akan membawa kolesterol dari dalam darah bagi digunakan oleh hati. HDL dianggap "kolesterol baik", sementara LDL adalah sebaliknya.
Oleh yang demikian, penilaian tahap merbahayanya kolesterol bergantung juga kepada pecahan kedua-dua jenis kolesterol ini. Di bawah paras 130 mm/dl bagi LDL adalah di anggap selamat, 130 hingga 159 mm/dl adalah sempadan. Apabila melebihi 160, seseorang itu berisiko atherosclerosis. Manakala kehadiran HDL perlu melebihi 45 mm/dl. Dengan itu, jumlah kolesterol secara keseluruhannya tidaklah membawa erti yang besar. Apa yang penting diambil kira dalam menilai tahap kesihatan seseorang adalah berdasarkan pecahan jumlah kolesterol keseluruhan per jumlah HDL. Di mana nisbah kolesterol/HDL ini perlu kurang dari 4.5. Bererti lagi tinggi HDL, adalah lagi baik. Sekalipun jumlah LDL adalah tinggi, pecahan tidak boleh kurang dari nilai yang diberikan untuk seseorang berada di tahap yang selamat.

Keadaan Yang Meransang Peningkatan Kolesterol Darah
* Umur yang melepasi 25 tahun
* Seseorang yang terdapat di kalangan ahli keluarganya mempunyai rekod penyakit yang berkaitan dengan jantung
* Kelenjar thyroid yang kurang aktif
* Terlalu banyak makanan manis yang diambil dalam satu-satu masa
* Banyak mengambil makanan berlemak tepi
* Ketagihan arak
* Mengambil makanan berkolesterol tinggi
* Wanita menopouse atau pada keadaan haid
* Kerap mengalami tekanan emosi
* Kurangnya aktiviti bersenam
* Mengurangkan Kolesterol.

Di antara keadah yang diketahui umum sebagai berkesan bagi mengurangkan kolesterol di dalam darah adalah:
Elakkan diri dari mengambil terlalu banyak lemak tepu. Lemak tepu dikatakan meningkatkan paras kolesterol di dalam darah. Termasuk juga margerin dari kelapa sawit, keju kacang tanah. Kerana margerin atau keju merupakan merupakan minyak yang telah ditepukan (hydrogenated oil).
Paling selamat adalah dari "mono" tak tepu (monounsaturated). Contohnya minyak conola atau zaitun. Kurangnya kesan penyakit jantung di kalangan masyarakat yang tinggal di kawasan Mediterranean berpunca dari penggunaan minyak jenis ini. Dua sudu teh lemak tak tepu ini sebenarnya sudah mencukupi untuk memenuhi keperluan minimum 30% tenaga oleh lemak dalam sehari.
Pengambilan serat terutama dari jenis larut air terutama oat. Jika dilakukan selalu boleh menurunkan kandungan kolesterol di antara 3 hingga 9 peratus.

Senaman pada sesetengah orang mampu meningkatkan HDL di dalam darah. Sebaliknya merokok menurunkan jumlahnya.
Perlu mengurangkan pengambilan makanan dari sumber-sumber yang kaya kolesterol. Ia banyak terdapat pada sumber haiwan, tidak pada sumber tanaman. Antaranya seperti telur merah, daging, organ haiwan, ikan dan ayam. Sementara udang, ketam, tiram juga kaya dengan kolestrol, tetapi kaya juga dengan lemak "poli" tak tepu (polyunsaturated). Pengambilan ikan yang kaya dengan "polyunsaturated" yang menyumbang sehingga 5 hingga 6 gram minyaknya oleh masyarakat eskimo meninggikan HDL, mengurangkan kolesterol, LDL dan trigliserik sekalipun kandungan lemak di dalam darah adalah tinggi.

Minyak Kelapa Dara dan Kolesterol
Kolesterol dan trigliserida terbentuk dari acetyl coenzyme-A (acetyl-CoA). Memang benar lelemak tepu diubah kepada acetyl-CoA melibatkan proses oksidasi beta (beta oxidation) tetapi menuding pengambilan lelemak tepu sebagai punca peningkatan kolesterol adalah kurang tepat.
Menurut pakar biokimia terkenal Dr Mary Enig , LDL dan jumlah kolesterol berkurang kerana pengambilan lelemak omega-6 (canola, bunga matahari, kacang soya, jagung, safflower) menyebabkan kolesterol diperlukan untuk menstabilkan membran sel. Hasilnya, kolesterol berkurangan dalam darah lalu menurunkan paras trigliserida dan LDL.
Lelemak tepu dari minyak kelapa dara pula dipercayai memperkukuh struktur membran-membran, oleh itu kolesterol kurang digunakan untuk menstabilkannya. Kajian terbaru di India seperti dilaporkan pada 2004 mendapati pengambilan minyak kelapa dara menyebabkan paras LDL dan trigliserida turun serta paras HDL meningkat.