What is Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a naturally occurring substance that is both made by your body and derived from the food you eat. Total cholesterol is a measure of all cholesterol in your blood including HDL "good" cholesterol, LDL "bad" cholesterol and triglycerides.

HDL: HDL is considered your "good" cholesterol because it can pick up "bad" cholesterol and transport it to your liver, where your body can get rid of it. High levels of HDL can protect your arteries from cholesterol build-up (formed by LDL) and reduce your risk of heart disease. Experts agree that a total cholesterol level under 200 mg/dl is considered desirable. Experts agree that a low total cholesterol does not necessarily mean low risk and that low HDL actually increases your risk of CHD.
Your risk of heart disease increases as the level of HDL decreases. In fact, the NCEP, adult treatment guidelines now recommend testing for HDL as well as total cholesterol for accurate assessment of cardiac risk. Total cholesterol testing alone can be misleading. Approximately 40% of the U.S. population who are only tested for total cholesterol could misinterpret their results. 17% tested don't realize they could be at risk due to low HDL (<40 mg/dl) and 23% tested may over estimate their risk because their HDL level is high (>60 mg/dl), indicating added protection from CHD.

LDL: Low density lipoproteins - LDL is the major cholesterol carrier in the blood. When a person has too much LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood, it can slowly build up within the walls of the arteries feeding the heart and brain. Together with other substances it can form plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can clog the arteries. This condition is known as atherosclerosis. The formation of a clot in the region of this plaque can block the flow of blood to part of the heart muscle and cause a heart attack. If a clot blocks the flow of blood to part of the brain, the result is a stroke. A high level of LDL reflects an increased risk of heart disease. That is why LDL cholesterol is often called the "bad" cholesterol.
Medical professionals and journals have noted that elevated total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are major risk factors for CHD, and the reductions of LDL cholesterol in high risk individuals leads to lower incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events.

Triglycerides: Triglycerides are the chemical form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body. They are also present in blood plasma and, in association with cholesterol, form the plasma lipids. Triglycerides in plasma are derived from fats eaten in foods or made in the body from other energy sources like carbohydrates. Carbohydrates ingested in a meal and not used immediately by tissues are converted to triglycerides and transported to fat cells to be stored. Hormones regulate the release of triglycerides from fat tissue so they meet the body's needs for energy between meals. Most of the body's stored fat is in the form of triglycerides. Another lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein- VLDL has the job of carrying triglycerides in the blood. It is not clear whether high levels of triglycerides alone increase an individual's risk of heart disease. However, they may be an important clue that someone is at risk of heart disease for other reasons. Many people who have elevated triglycerides also have high LDL or low HDL.
People with diabetes or kidney disease, two conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, are also prone to high triglycerides. Triglyceride levels are strongly influenced by diet. While cholesterol levels remain pretty constant over a month or so, and aren't terribly affected by meals, triglycerides respond quickly to a meal, particularly one with a lot of fat, sugar, or alcohol.


What is cholesterol

Cholesterol, one of the ingredients into the main stem to the problem of heart disease. If abortion is high in blood, he has the potential inherent in the walls of blood Salur. This will make blood Salur shrink and eventually be blocked. This process is known as atherosclerosis. Had force on the arteries to the heart, his impression is heart disease. If applicable in the brain, his impression is stroke. Apart from the heart, cholesterol is also associated with hearing problems, vision and intelligence also Minda someone. All of this is related to atherosclerosis. Disorders that cause the supply of nutrients and oxygen which is insufficient for these organs.
Cholesterol, is soft and oily, odorless. Present on every portion of the body, especially in the brain (with form 11% of dry weight), nervous system, skin, liver, intestine, spleen and sex hormones. So, people need in the biological processes. Just do not be in the amount is too much. Become commonplace, every element in the food necessary to have Had its acquisition. Inside the human body itself, produced by the liver cholesterol between 800 to 1000 mg a day. Intake of foods said to be very little effect on cholesterol concentrations increased weight. However, follow what is suggested by experts kesihatan America, making necessary daily to 300 mg dihadkan sake only.
Measurement of cholesterol concentrations in the blood is made in the mm / dl. A person aged over 20 years, looks at cholesterol between 180 to 200 mm / dl is considered safe. Less than 150 mm / dl is said to have links with kanser liver, lung, pancreas, moodiness, and bleeding of the brain. But the impression of actually still be fighting. Paras at between 200 to 230 mm / dl also considered border. While exceeding 240 mm / dl is considered high. Other factors will further enhance the dangers of cholesterol. Someone who have high blood pressure are at this stage has six times more merbahaya threat of heart disease, and 20 times the double danger of the threat of heart disease by a smoker!!
Cholesterol, triacyglicerol, and other fats in the cecair body moves with the help of some siri lipoproteins. A kind of material that berteraskan fat fat hydrophobic and surrounded by polar and then on the outside by the apoprotein. Among the species most captured the attention of the delivery of cholesterol is HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL (low density lipoprotein). Both are produced by the liver where cholesterol will join him. LDL to form 60 to 75 peratus of total cholesterol, while HDL, forming 25 peratus. Role of LDL carries cholesterol into the arterial blood. High concentration causes atherosclerosis, in which LDL cholesterol is separate from and attached to so harden the walls of arteries. Instead of HDL will carry cholesterol from the blood to be used by the liver. HDL is considered "good cholesterol", while LDL is the opposite.
By the way, the assessment stage merbahayanya cholesterol fractions depend also on the second-these two types of cholesterol. Under paras 130 mm / dl for LDL is considered safe, 130 to 159 mm / dl is the finish line. If more than 160, a person is at risk of atherosclerosis. When the presence of HDL should exceed 45 mm / dl. With that, the amount of cholesterol as a whole was not carrying a big erties. What is necessary is taken in assessing the stage kesihatan think someone is based on the fractional amount of total per amount of HDL cholesterol. Where the ratio cholesterol / HDL is necessary less than 4.5. Means to more high-HDL, is again good. Though the number of LDL is high, pieces can not be less than the value given to a person are at the stage of the survivors.

The state of stimulating Improved Blood Cholesterol
* Age 25 years who melepasi
* Someone who is there among family experts have records relating to heart disease
* Underactive thyroid gland
* Too many sweet foods taken in one-one time
* Many took the edge of fatty foods
* Addicted to wine
* Take a high-cholesterol diet
* Women in menopause or menstrual conditions
* Often experiencing emotional stress
* Lack aktiviti do physical exercises
* Reducing Cholesterol.

Among keadah known generically as memorable for subtracting the cholesterol in the blood are:
Elakkan yourself from taking too much fat tepu. Tepu fat is said to improve the appearance of cholesterol in the blood. Included also margerin from palm oil, peanut cheese. Kerana margerin or cheese is an oil that has been ditepukan (hydrogenated oil).
Most survivors are from the "mono" no tepu (monounsaturated). For example conola or olive oil. Lack impression of heart disease among people living in the Mediterranean region berpunca of using this type of oil. Two blades tepu fat tea is already sufficient to meet the minimum 30% of the fat in a day.
Intake of soluble fiber mainly from the type of water, especially oats. If done always allowed to lower the cholesterol content of between 3 to 9 peratus.

Senaman on sesetengah people are able to increase HDL in the blood. Instead of smoking lower the amount.
Need to subtract taking food from the rich sources of cholesterol. He is widely available on haiwan sources, not on the source plant. Among them such as red eggs, meat, organs haiwan, fish and chicken. While the shrimp, crabs, oysters are also rich in cholesterol, but also rich with fat "poly" not tepu (polyunsaturated). Intake of fish are rich with "polyunsaturated" who contribute so that 5 to 6 grams of oil by the eskimo raise HDL, reduce cholesterol, LDL and trigliserik although the fat content in the blood is high.

Dara Coconut Oil and Cholesterol
Cholesterol and triglycerides are formed from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). It is true lelemak tepu converted to acetyl-CoA involves a process of oxidation of beta (beta oxidation) but blamed taking lelemak tepu as stem increase in cholesterol is less precise.
According to experts, renowned biochemist Dr. Mary Enig, LDL and total cholesterol decreased kerana lelemak taking omega-6 (canola, sunflower, soya bean, corn, safflower) causes cholesterol is needed to stabilize the cell membrane. As a result, cholesterol in the blood berkurangan then lowered triglycerides and LDL paras.
Lelemak tepu of virgin coconut oil is also believed to strengthen the structure of membranes, the cholesterol is less used to stabilize. Recent studies in India as reported in 2004 found that virgin coconut oil making cause paras LDL and triglycerides decreased and HDL increased paras.


Apa itu kolesterol

Kolesterol, salah satu bahan yang menjadi punca utama kepada masalah peyakit jantung. Apabila kandungannya tinggi di dalam darah, ia berpotensi melekat pada dinding salur darah. Ini akan membuatkan salur darah mengecil dan akhirnya boleh tersumbat. Proses ini dikenali sebagai atherosclerosis. Sekiranya berlaku pada arteri yang ke jantung, kesannya adalah penyakit jantung. Apabila berlaku di otak, kesannya adalah strok. Selain dari jantung, kolesterol juga dikaitkan dengan masalah pendengaran, pengelihatan dan juga kecerdasan minda seseorang. Semua ini berkaitan dengan atherosclerosis. Gangguan yang menyebabkan penyediaan nutrient dan oksigen yang tidak mencukupi untuk organ-organ tersebut.
Kolesterol, bersifat lembut dan berminyak, tidak berbau. Hadir pada setiap bahagian badan, terutamanya di dalam otak (dengan membentuk 11% dari berat keringnya), sistem saraf, kulit, hati, usus, limpa dan hormon sex. Jadi, manusia memerlukannya di dalam proses biologi. Cuma tak boleh pada jumlah yang terlalu banyak. Menjadi lumrah, setiap unsur pada makanan perlu ada had pengambilannya. Di dalam badan manusia sendiri, kolesterol dihasilkan oleh hati di antara 800 hingga 1000 mg sehari. Pengambilan dari makanan dikatakan sangat kecil pengaruhnya terhadap peningkatan kepekatan kolesterol badan. Namun, mengikut apa yang disarankan oleh pakar kesihatan Amerika, pengambilan harian perlu dihadkan kepada 300 mg sahaja.
Pengukuran kepekatan kolesterol pada darah di buat dalam mm/dl. Seseorang yang berumur melebihi 20 tahun, paras kolesterol di antara 180 hingga 200 mm/dl adalah dianggap selamat. Kurang dari 150 mm/dl dikatakan mempunyai kaitan dengan kanser hati, paru, pankreas, kemurungan, dan pendarahan otak. Tetapi kesan sebenar masih menjadi pertikaian. Paras di antara 200 hingga 230 mm/dl pula dianggap sempadan. Sementara melebihi 240 mm/dl dianggap tinggi. Faktor-faktor lain akan lebih menambah kesan bahayanya kolesterol. Seseorang yang ada darah tinggi berada pada tahap ini mempunyai enam kali lebih merbahaya ancaman penyakit jantung, dan 20 kali ganda bahaya ancaman penyakit jantung oleh seorang perokok!!!!
Kolesterol, triacyglicerol, dan lemak-lemak yang lain bergerak di dalam cecair badan dengan bantuan beberapa siri lipoprotein. Sejenis bahan yang berteraskan lemak hidrofobik dan dikelilingi oleh lemak polar dan kemudian di luarnya oleh apoprotein. Di antara jenis yang paling diambil perhatian dalam penghantaran kolesterol adalah HDL (high density lipoprotein) dan LDL (low density lipoprotein). Kedua-duanya dihasilkan oleh hati di mana kolesterol akan bergabung dengannya. LDL membentuk 60 hingga 75 peratus dari jumlah kolesterol, sementara HDL membentuk 25 peratus. LDL berperanan membawa kolesterol ke dalam arteri darah. Kepekatannya yang tinggi menyebabkan atherosclerosis, di mana kolesterol terpisah dari LDL dan melekat seterusnya mengeraskan dinding arteri. Sebaliknya HDL akan membawa kolesterol dari dalam darah bagi digunakan oleh hati. HDL dianggap "kolesterol baik", sementara LDL adalah sebaliknya.
Oleh yang demikian, penilaian tahap merbahayanya kolesterol bergantung juga kepada pecahan kedua-dua jenis kolesterol ini. Di bawah paras 130 mm/dl bagi LDL adalah di anggap selamat, 130 hingga 159 mm/dl adalah sempadan. Apabila melebihi 160, seseorang itu berisiko atherosclerosis. Manakala kehadiran HDL perlu melebihi 45 mm/dl. Dengan itu, jumlah kolesterol secara keseluruhannya tidaklah membawa erti yang besar. Apa yang penting diambil kira dalam menilai tahap kesihatan seseorang adalah berdasarkan pecahan jumlah kolesterol keseluruhan per jumlah HDL. Di mana nisbah kolesterol/HDL ini perlu kurang dari 4.5. Bererti lagi tinggi HDL, adalah lagi baik. Sekalipun jumlah LDL adalah tinggi, pecahan tidak boleh kurang dari nilai yang diberikan untuk seseorang berada di tahap yang selamat.

Keadaan Yang Meransang Peningkatan Kolesterol Darah
* Umur yang melepasi 25 tahun
* Seseorang yang terdapat di kalangan ahli keluarganya mempunyai rekod penyakit yang berkaitan dengan jantung
* Kelenjar thyroid yang kurang aktif
* Terlalu banyak makanan manis yang diambil dalam satu-satu masa
* Banyak mengambil makanan berlemak tepi
* Ketagihan arak
* Mengambil makanan berkolesterol tinggi
* Wanita menopouse atau pada keadaan haid
* Kerap mengalami tekanan emosi
* Kurangnya aktiviti bersenam
* Mengurangkan Kolesterol.

Di antara keadah yang diketahui umum sebagai berkesan bagi mengurangkan kolesterol di dalam darah adalah:
Elakkan diri dari mengambil terlalu banyak lemak tepu. Lemak tepu dikatakan meningkatkan paras kolesterol di dalam darah. Termasuk juga margerin dari kelapa sawit, keju kacang tanah. Kerana margerin atau keju merupakan merupakan minyak yang telah ditepukan (hydrogenated oil).
Paling selamat adalah dari "mono" tak tepu (monounsaturated). Contohnya minyak conola atau zaitun. Kurangnya kesan penyakit jantung di kalangan masyarakat yang tinggal di kawasan Mediterranean berpunca dari penggunaan minyak jenis ini. Dua sudu teh lemak tak tepu ini sebenarnya sudah mencukupi untuk memenuhi keperluan minimum 30% tenaga oleh lemak dalam sehari.
Pengambilan serat terutama dari jenis larut air terutama oat. Jika dilakukan selalu boleh menurunkan kandungan kolesterol di antara 3 hingga 9 peratus.

Senaman pada sesetengah orang mampu meningkatkan HDL di dalam darah. Sebaliknya merokok menurunkan jumlahnya.
Perlu mengurangkan pengambilan makanan dari sumber-sumber yang kaya kolesterol. Ia banyak terdapat pada sumber haiwan, tidak pada sumber tanaman. Antaranya seperti telur merah, daging, organ haiwan, ikan dan ayam. Sementara udang, ketam, tiram juga kaya dengan kolestrol, tetapi kaya juga dengan lemak "poli" tak tepu (polyunsaturated). Pengambilan ikan yang kaya dengan "polyunsaturated" yang menyumbang sehingga 5 hingga 6 gram minyaknya oleh masyarakat eskimo meninggikan HDL, mengurangkan kolesterol, LDL dan trigliserik sekalipun kandungan lemak di dalam darah adalah tinggi.

Minyak Kelapa Dara dan Kolesterol
Kolesterol dan trigliserida terbentuk dari acetyl coenzyme-A (acetyl-CoA). Memang benar lelemak tepu diubah kepada acetyl-CoA melibatkan proses oksidasi beta (beta oxidation) tetapi menuding pengambilan lelemak tepu sebagai punca peningkatan kolesterol adalah kurang tepat.
Menurut pakar biokimia terkenal Dr Mary Enig , LDL dan jumlah kolesterol berkurang kerana pengambilan lelemak omega-6 (canola, bunga matahari, kacang soya, jagung, safflower) menyebabkan kolesterol diperlukan untuk menstabilkan membran sel. Hasilnya, kolesterol berkurangan dalam darah lalu menurunkan paras trigliserida dan LDL.
Lelemak tepu dari minyak kelapa dara pula dipercayai memperkukuh struktur membran-membran, oleh itu kolesterol kurang digunakan untuk menstabilkannya. Kajian terbaru di India seperti dilaporkan pada 2004 mendapati pengambilan minyak kelapa dara menyebabkan paras LDL dan trigliserida turun serta paras HDL meningkat.